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L'agriculture et l'élevage dans les plaines indo-gangétiques de l'Inde : vers une nouvelle intégration

Barbier B., Alary V., Deybe D.. 2004. OCL. Oléagineux Corps gras Lipides, 11 (4-5) : p. 277-286.

A huge importer of food aid in the post-independence years, India has rapidly reached self-sufficiency in grain in the late sixties, thanks to a pro-active policy oriented towards grain production in the indo-gangetic plains. However facing the today's gigantic surpluses of grains, and the worrisome budget deficit of the central government and the Indian states, India ha come under pressure from various national and international institutions to shift state support from grain production to other productions. For the indo-gangetic plains, current grain basket of India, dairy is considered among the best alternatives. Grain producers of these regions are already the one contributing most, with producers form the North West (Gujarat, Maharastra), to the national dairy production and they are the ones with the better chances to respond to the increasing national demand for dairy products. The simulations developed in this study show that there is an important potential for crop livestock integration and that this integration can maintain agricultural incomes; partially compensate the likely reduction of subsidies and contribute to a better management of soil fertility. Whether national production will be able to respond to the demand in grain from both humans and animals, is a hot debate in India. On one hand, dairy production system is so extensive that production can be increased easily without much additional feeding of grain or concentrates but with cheaper sources of forages. On the other hand, the rapidly increasing poultry industry depends heavily upon maize, which is still a marginal production in India.

Mots-clés : Élevage; production laitière; diversification; marché; inde; relation agriculture-élevage

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