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Environmental and genetic control of morphogenesis in crops : towards models simulating phenotypic plasticity

Dingkuhn M., Luquet D., Quilot B., De Reffye P.. 2005. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56 (11) : p. 1289-1302.

As molecular biologists are realising the importance of physiology in understanding functional genomics of quantitative traits, and as physiologists are realising the formidable prospects for improving their phenotypic models with information on the underlying gene networks, researchers worldwide are working on linked physiological-genetic models. These efforts are in their early methodological stage despite, or because of, the availability of many different types of models, the problem being to bring together the different ways that scientists see the plant. This paper describes some current efforts to adapt phenotype models to the objective of simulating gene-phene processes at the plant or crop scale. Particular emphasis is given to the models' capacity to simulate genotype × environment interaction and the resulting phenotypic plasticity, assuming that this permits the defining of model parameters that are closer to specific gene action. Three different types of approaches are presented: (1) a generic, mathematical-architectural model called GREENLAB that simulates resource-modulated morphogenesis; (2) an ecophysiological model of peach tree fruit development and filling, parameterised for a mapping population to evaluate the potential of plugging quantitative trait locus (QTL) effects into the model; and (3) the new model Ecomeristem that constructs plant architecture and its phenotypic plasticity from meristem behaviour, the principal hypothesis being that resource limitations and stresses feed back on the meristems. This latter choice is based on the fact that gene expression happens to a large extent in the meristems. The model is evaluated on the basis of preliminary studies on vegetative-stage rice. The different modelling concepts are critically discussed with respect to their ability to simulate phenotypic plasticity and to operate with parameters that approximate specific gene action, particularly in the area of morphogenesis. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : génétique; intéraction génotype environnement; locus des caractères quantitatifs; facteur du milieu; compétition végétale; glucide; méristème; organogénèse; morphogénèse; modèle végétal; modèle de simulation; adaptabilité; phénotype; variation génétique; anatomie végétale; prunus persica; oryza sativa; qtl

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Physiologie végétale : croissance et développement; Méthodes mathématiques et statistiques

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