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Identification of oil palm breeding lines producing oils with low acid values

Ngando Ebongue G.F., Koona P., Nouy B., Zok S., Carrière F., Amvam Zollo P.H., Arondel V.. 2008. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110 (6) : p. 505-509.

In the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), an active endogenous lipase is responsible for the massive release of free fatty acids (FFA) in the mesocarp of fruits at maturity. This can lead to the production of oils with unacceptable acid values. We have investigated the lipase activities in 39 genotypes of oil palm presently used in breeding programs. While most E. guineensis genotypes exhibited high lipase activity values, four of them with negligible activities were identified.We analyzed in situ lipolysis in the mesocarp upon severe wounding of fruits. The FFA content of high-lipase fruits ranged from 17 to 55%, while all low-lipase fruits contained less than 7.5% FFA. The analysis of oil from fallen overripe fruits indicated that all lowlipase genotypes contained less than 1.2% FFA (oil acidity ,5% FFA, FAO-WHO international norms), while all but one high-lipase genotypes had FFA contents much higher than the acceptable standards. Because the identified low-lipase lines are of high agronomical value and at least one of them is an elite genotype, it will soon be possible to provide farmers with new low-lipase oil palm lines allowing significant savings on labor costs, without any need for further breeding. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : lipase; estérase; activité enzymatique; variation génétique; acide gras libre; huile de palme; acidité; sélection; identification; génotype; elaeis guineensis

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Composition des produits alimentaires

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