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Natural polyploidy in Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae)

Bory S., Catrice O., Brown S., Leitch I.J., Gigant R., Chiroleu F., Grisoni M., Duval M.F., Besse P.. 2008. Genome (Ottawa), 51 (10) : p. 816-826.

DOI: 10.1139/G08-068

Vanilla planifolia accessions cultivated in Reunion Island display important phenotypic variation, but little genetic diversity is demonstrated by AFLP and SSR markers. This study, based on analyses of flow cytometry data, Feulgen microdensitometry data, chromosome counts, and stomatal length measurements, was performed to determine whether polyploidy could be responsible for some of the intraspecific phenotypic variation observed. Vanilla planifolia exhibited an important variation in somatic chromosome number in root cells, as well as endoreplication as revealed by flow cytometry. Nevertheless, the 2C-values of the 50 accessions studied segregated into three distinct groups averaging 5.03 pg (for most accessions), 7.67 pg (for the "Stérile" phenotypes), and 10.00 pg (for the "Grosse Vanille" phenotypes). For the three groups, chromosome numbers varied from 16 to 32, 16 to 38, and 22 to 54 chromosomes per cell, respectively. The stomatal length showed a significant variation from 37.75 µm to 48.25 µm. Given that 2C-values, mean chromosome numbers, and stomatal lengths were positively correlated and that "Stérile" and "Grosse Vanille" accessions were indistinguishable from "Classique" accessions using molecular markers, the occurrence of recent autotriploid and autotetraploid types in Reunion Island is supported. This is the first report showing evidence of a recent autopolyploidy in V. planifolia contributing to the phenotypic variation observed in this species.

Mots-clés : vanilla planifolia; polyploïdie; phénotype; génome; nombre chromosomique; technique analytique; réunion; france

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