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Present state of the production of Musaceae in Africa, Asia Pacific and the Caribbean

Lescot T.. 2008. In : by J.S. Borja ; C. Nogales ; C. Orrantia ; R. Paladines ; V. Quimi and L. Tazan (eds.). Memories of XVIII ACORBAT meeting, 10-14 November 2008, Guayaquil, Ecador. s.l. : s.n., 12 p.. International Meeting ACORBAT 2008. 18, 2008-11-10/2008-11-14, Guayaquil (Equateur).

The world-wide production of bananas and plantains (104 MT in 2006) has generally continued to increase with consumer demand proportional to population increase. However, imbalances exist in some countries with high banana consumption mainly in urban zones where high prices have turned this basic food product into a luxury dish (Cameroun, Gabon, Côte d'Ivoire, Haiti). Four main types of Musaceae can be differentiated: plantain (AAB), others cooking bananas (AAB, ABB, AAAea, etc.), Cavendish (AAA), other dessert bananas (AAA, AA, AAB). The Cavendish group is the most produced type with more than 46 TM (44.7%) especially in the Asian continent, followed by cooking bananas (26.5 TM, 25.4%) also concentrated in Asia, plantains (18.8 TM, 18%) concentrated in Africa and Latin America, and other dessert bananas (12.3 TM, 11.8%) in Asia and Latin America. Except for intensive export production, 95% Cavendish, yields are generally low, between 5 and 12 t/hectares, well below their potential. The main obstacles to yield improvement are the use of traditional production techniques, an increase in pest and disease pressure, the underuse of modern production techniques for irrigation, pest and disease control and fertilization and traditional marketing chains which minimize price increases to growers. Exports continue to grow slightly faster (16.5 TM, 16%, mainly Cavendish, 16 TM), especially with the commercial dynamism of Europe. In Asia and the Pacific, production always follows the national and regional consumption. The Philippines, with its experience and infrastructure of intensive and quality production of Cavendish, remains the leading exporter to markets in Japan, the Middle East, Korea and China. India, world's leading producer (11.7 MT), is intent to export to Middle East. The threat of health risk to the tropical race 4 of the FOC from the south-east Asia remains strong, without major advances in its management. In Africa, few significant changes in production have occurred of importance for consumers. However, Ghana continues to increase exports of Cavendish and new export production from Mozambique and Angola with the support of the multinational "Chiquita" is planned for 2010. In East Africa the spread of Bacterial Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) continues to threaten production for national and regional markets. In Europe, the Canary Islands are still the main supplier of Spain, and Turkey has noticeably increased production for its national markets. In the Caribbean, the production and export in the Windward Islands has declined with the end of exports from Grenada and have become oriented to fair-trade labelling and trade to Europe. However, volumes have increased in two ACP countries, the Dominican Republic which is the leading exporter of organic bananas and Surinam which targets the European market. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : musaceae; afrique; asie et pacifique; caraïbes

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