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Long-term pollution by chlordecone of tropical volcanic soils in the French West Indies: a simple leaching model accounts for current residue

Cabidoche Y.M., Achard R., Cattan P., Clermont Dauphin C., Massat F., Sansoulet J.. 2009. Environmental Pollution, 157 : p. 1697-1705.

Chlordecone was applied between 1972 and 1993 in banana fields of the French West Indies. This resulted in long-term pollution of soils and contamination of waters, aquatic biota, and crops. To assess pollution level and duration according to soil type, WISORCH, a leaching model based on first-order desorption kinetics, was developed and run. Its input parameters are soil organic carbon content (SOC) and SOC/water partitioning coefficient (Koc). It accounts for current chlordecone soil contents and drainage water concentrations. The model was valid for andosol, which indicates that neither physicochemical nor microbial degradation occurred. Dilution by previous deep tillages makes soil scrapping unrealistic. Lixiviation appeared the main way to reduce pollution. Besides the SOC and rainfall increases, Koc increased from nitisol to ferralsol and then andosol while lixiviation efficiency decreased. Consequently, pollution is bound to last for several decades for nitisol, centuries for ferralsol, and half a millennium for andosol. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : pollution du sol; pollution de l'eau souterraine; persistance des pesticides; pollution par l'agriculture; chlordécone; musa; antilles françaises; guadeloupe

Thématique : Pollution; Protection des végétaux : considérations générales; Chimie et physique du sol

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