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Antibody-ELISA for Trypanosoma evansi: Application in a serological survey of dairy cattle, Thailand, and validation of a locally produced antigen

Desquesnes M., Kamyingkird K., Pruvot M., Kengradomkij C., Bossard G., Sarataphan N., Jittapalapong S.. 2009. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 90 (3-4) : p. 233-241.

DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.04.011

Trypanosoma evansi is generally considered a mild pathogen in bovines. However, in Asia, acute and chronic signs have been observed in cattle, with high levels of parasitaemia, abortion and death. Investigations in Asian cattle are needed to better understand this epidemiological situation. To generate comparable data at a regional level, development and standardization of an antibody-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for T. evansi (ELISA/T. evansi) was initiated and applied in an epidemiological survey carried out in dairy cattle in Thailand. A batch of 1979 samples was collected from dairy farms located throughout the country's four regions. Soluble T. evansi antigens initially produced in France were also produced in Thailand for comparison and technology transfer. Screening of 500 samples allowed us to identify reference samples and to determine the cut-off value of the ELISA. Seropositive animals - some of them confirmed by PCR - were found in the four regions, in 12 out of 13 provinces, in 22 out of 31 districts, in 56 farms out of 222 (25%, 95%CI _ 6%) and in 163 animals out of 1979 (8.2, 95%CI _ 1.2%). Estimated seroprevalence in 35 farms ranged between 1% and 30%, and in 21 farms it was >30%. Approximately 25% of survey cattle were exposed to the infection, in various situations. A sub-sample of 160 sera was tested on both antigens. Wilcoxon's (Z = 1.24; p = 0.22) and McNemars's tests (CHI2 = 3.55; p = 0.09) did not show any significant differences, showing that the locally produced antigen is suitable for further evaluation in the surrounding countries. Use of this standardized serological method will broaden knowledge of the prevalence and impact of the disease at the regional level in South-East Asia. Further validation of this ELISA will be necessary in other host species such as buffalo, horse and pig.

Mots-clés : trypanosoma evansi; bovin laitier; thaïlande

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