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Genetic determination and temperature effects on turbot Scophthalmus maximus sex differentiation : An investigation using steroid sex-inverted males and females

Haffray P., Lebègue E., Jeu S., Guennoc M., Guiguen Y., Baroiller J.F., Fostier A.. 2009. Aquaculture, 294 (1-2) : p. 30-36.

DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.05.004

The relative roles of genetic (GSD) and temperature sex determination (TSD) were investigated in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, with the objective of producing all-female stocks for aquaculture. Androgen treated males (ATM) and oestrogen treated females (OTF) were produced after testing various 17?-methyltestosterone or 17?-oestradiol treatments delivered orally (3 or 5 mg steroids/kg food) from 35 days postfertilization (dpf) during either 500 or 700 degree-days respectively. GSD was analyzed by checking the sex ratio of families (n=33) obtained by crossing control parents with other control parents, either ATM or OTF. TSD was investigated on 8 families reared at three temperatures (15 °C, 17 °C or 24 °C) from weaning to 100 dpf. All the steroid treatments were efficient in producing either 100% male or 100% female populations demonstrating the production of androgen sex-inversed males and oestrogen sex-inversed females. The results of the GSD analysis suggested that most of the data fit to a ZZ/ZW model of sex determination. However, some crosses deviated from this model and other minor factors may be involved. Interestingly, minor effects of temperature and a limited but significant interaction between family and temperature have been observed. In conclusion, the present data suggest that a major ZZ/ZW genetic model is involved in turbot sex determination. Unexpected sex ratios deviating from this model are discussed, including a possible minor effect of environmental factors, such as temperature.

Mots-clés : scophthalmus maximus; détermination du sexe; différenciation sexuelle; stéroïde; température; génétique; pays de la loire; france

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