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Spatio-temporal distribution of tsetse and other biting flies in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso

Koné N., N'goran E.K., Sidibé I., Kombassere A.W., Bouyer J.. 2011. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 25 (2) : p. 156-168.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2010.00938.x

In the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso, the main vectors of African animal trypanosomoses are Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae), both of which are riverine tsetse species. The aim of our study was to understand the impact of landscape anthropogenic changes on the seasonal dynamics of vectors and associated trypanosomosis risk. Three sites were selected on the basis of the level of disturbance of tsetse habitats and predominant tsetse species: disturbed (Boromo, for G. tachinoides) and halfdisturbed (Douroula for G. tachinoides and Kadomba for G. p. gambiensis). At each of these sites, seasonal variations in the apparent densities of tsetse and mechanical vectors and tsetse infection rates were monitored over 17 months. Tsetse densities differed significantly between sites and seasons. Of 5613 captured tsetse, 1897 were dissected; 34 of these were found to be infected with trypanosomes. The most frequent infection was Trypanosoma vivax (1.4%), followed by Trypanosoma congolense (0.3%) and Trypanosoma brucei (0.05%). The mean physiological age of 703 tsetse females was investigated to better characterize the transmission risk. Despite the environmental changes, it appeared that tsetse lived long enough to transmit trypanosomes, especially in half-disturbed landscapes. A total of 3021 other biting flies from 15 species (mainly Tabanidae and Stomoxyinae) were also caught: their densities also differed significantly among sites and seasons. Their relative importance regarding trypanosome transmission is discussed; the trypanosomosis risk in cattle was similar at all sites despite very low tsetse densities (but high mechanical vector densities) in one of them.

Mots-clés : glossina palpalis; glossina tachinoides; trypanosoma vivax; trypanosoma congolense; trypanosoma brucei; paysage; burkina faso

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