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Performance of Coffea arabica F1 hybrids in agroforestry and full-sun cropping systems in comparison with American pure line cultivars

Bertrand B., Alpizar E., Lara L., Santacreo R., Hidalgo M., Quijano J.M., Montagnon C., Georget F., Etienne H.. 2011. Euphytica, 181 (2) : p. 147-158.

Coffea arabica F1 hybrids derived from crosses between wild Sudan-Ethiopian and American cultivars and propagated by somatic embryogenesis have been obtained in Central America. These new hybrids considerably enhanced the genetic diversity of coffee in the region. We conducted 15 trials to assess whether using hybrids represents substantial genetic progress in terms of productivity in agroforestry and full-sun cropping systems. The new germplasm was grown in the same conditions as the best American cultivar (homozygous pure lines). The results showed that yields of hybrids were earlier and superior to those of American cultivars. The hybrids were also more stable than the American cultivars in all environments. In the agroforestry system, the mean yield of hybrids was 58% higher than that of the American cultivars, while the mean yield of hybrids in the full-sun system was 34% higher. Coffee-based agroforestry systems (AS) are considered effective in protecting the environment in the volcanic cordilleras of Central America. We found that introducing hybrids in coffee-based AS can considerably increase productivity. This finding could be a convincing argument to encourage coffee growers who have adopted the full-sun cropping system to return to agroforestry cropping systems. Finally, the conditions for large-scale dissemination of those new hybrids-which represent a major innovation for C. arabica cropping-was analysed. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : hybride f1; lignée pure; agroforesterie; coffea arabica; amérique centrale; Éthiopie

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Systèmes et modes de culture; Production forestière

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