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Climate, cattle rearing systems and African animal trypanosomosis risk in Burkina Faso

Pagabeleguem S., Sangaré M., Bengaly Z., Akoudjin M., Belem A.M.G., Bouyer J.. 2012. PloS One, 7 (11) : 6 p..

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049762

Background: In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings: Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P,0.05). Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P,0.05). Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p,0.001). Conclusions/Significance: The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an ''epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis'' cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends to a buffer area around their distribution belt, corresponding to the herd transhumance radius.

Mots-clés : trypanosomose; trypanosoma vivax; Épidémiologie; glossinidae; vecteur de maladie; dynamique des populations; facteur climatique; transhumance; méthode d'élevage; analyse du risque; entomologie; parasitologie; changement climatique; burkina faso

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