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Changes in Anopheles funestus biting behavior following universal coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Benin

Moiroux N., Gomez M., Pennetier C., Elanga E., Djènontin A., Chandre F., Djegbe I., Guis H., Corbel V.. 2012. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 206 (10) : p. 1622-1629.

Background. Behavioral modification of malaria vectors in response to vector control methods is of great concern. We investigated whether full coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets (LLINs) may induce a switch in biting behavior in Anopheles funestus, a major malaria vector in Africa. Methods. Human-landing collections were conducted indoor and outdoor in 2 villages (Lokohouè and Tokoli) in Benin before and 1 year and 3 years after implementation of universal LLIN coverage. Proportion of outdoor biting (POB) and median catching times (MCT) were compared. The resistance of A. funestus to deltamethrin was monitored using bioassays. Results. MCT of A. funestus switched from 2 AM in Lokohoué and 3 AM in Tokoli to 5 AM after 3 years (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .0001). In Tokoli, POB increased from 45% to 68.1% (odds ratio = 2.55; 95 confidence interval = 1.72-3.78; P < .0001) 1 year after the universal coverage, whereas POB was unchanged in Lokohoué. In Lokohoué, however, the proportion of A. funestus that bites after 6 AM was 26%. Bioassays showed no resistance to deltamethrin. Conclusions. This study provides evidence for a switch in malaria vectors' biting behavior after the implementation of LLIN at universal coverage. These findings might have direct consequences for malaria control in Africa and highlighted the need for alternative strategies for better targeting malaria vectors. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : protection de la santé; deltaméthrine; insecticide; contrôle de maladies; résistance aux pesticides; vecteur de maladie; malaria; lutte anti-insecte; anopheles; bénin; anopheles funestus

Thématique : Organismes nuisibles des animaux; Maladies des animaux

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