Publications des agents du Cirad


Équité, jeux de pouvoir et légitimité : les dilemmes d'une gestion concertée des ressources renouvelables. Mise à l'épreuve d'une posture d'accompagnement critique dans deux systèmes agraires des hautes terres du Nord de la Thaïlande

Barnaud C.. 2008. Nanterre : Université de Paris-Nanterre, 407 p.. Thèse de doctorat -- Géographie humaine, économique et régionale.

Participatory approaches are nowadays widely used in the field of renewable resources management, but designers of such approaches are facing dilemmas, especially in highly heterogeneous social contexts. On the one hand, some of them stand accused of being naively manipulated by the most powerful local stakeholders, while on the other hand, others are accused of intervening on social systems to empower some particular stakeholders without having the legitimacy to do so. Facing such dilemmas, this dissertation examines the testing of a critical companion approach based on a conceptual framework referring, among others, to negotiation theories. This approach recognizes the necessity to take into account the local stakeholders' power games to avoid the risk of increasing initial inequities. The dissertation draws on the experimentation and reflexive analysis of two companion modelling (ComMod) processes conducted with such a critical approach in two agrarian systems in the highlands of Northern Thailand. We show that local power games express themselves in ComMod processes and that some of them might be obstacles to the emergence of an equitable concerted process. We also demonstrate that, through his methodological choices, the designer of a ComMod process is able to overcome some of these obstacles to a certain extent. Consequently, the implementation of a ComMod process is far from being a neutral exercise. It requires a continual critical reflection on the process, in particular on the designer's legitimacy in the eyes of local stakeholders. The designer should attempt to make explicit all his underlying assumptions so that local stakeholders can choose to accept or reject them.

Mots-clés : gestion des ressources naturelles; communauté rurale; propriété foncière; politique de l'environnement; utilisation des terres; droit foncier; structure agraire; structure agricole; modèle mathématique; thaïlande

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