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Tsetse flies: Their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches

Vreysen M.J.B., Seck M.T., Sall B., Bouyer J.. 2013. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 112 (1) : S15-S25.

Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessable for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : distribution géographique; méthode de lutte; aérosol; lutte chimique; lutte biologique; lâcher d'insectes stériles; Écologie animale; dynamique des populations; cycle de développement; contrôle de maladies; trypanosoma brucei; trypanosoma congolense; trypanosoma; glossina palpalis; glossinidae; sénégal

Thématique : Organismes nuisibles des animaux; Maladies des animaux

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