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Malaria vectors in the Republic of Benin: Distribution of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex

Djogbenou L., Pasteur N., Bio-Bangana S., Baldet T., Irish S., Akogbeto M., Weill M., Chandre F.. 2010. Acta Tropica, 114 (2) : p. 116-122.

Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are among the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato was carried out in 2006 and 2007 in various bioclimatic areas of Benin (West Africa). The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of species and forms within the An. gambiae complex and to produce a map of their spatial distribution. Sampling took place at 30 sites and 2122 females were analyzed. Two species were identified through molecular methods. The overall collection showed a preponderance of An. gambiae s.s., but unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was reported in the coastal-Guinean bioclimatic area characterized by a mean annual rainfall of >1500 mm where only An. gambiae s.s. was reported previously. Our study of Benin indicates that An. arabiensis would be adapted not only to the urban areas but also to the rural humid regions. Among 1717 An. gambiae s.s., 26.5% were of the M form and 73.3% were S form. Few hybrid specimens between the M and S forms were observed (0.2%). Only the spatial distribution of the M form appears to be mainly a function of bioclimatic area. Factors that influence the distribution of these malaria vectors are discussed. This study underlines the need of further investigations of biological, ecological, and behavioral traits of these species and forms to better appreciate their vectorial capacities. Acquisition of entomological field data appears essential to better estimate the stratification of malaria risk and help improve malaria vector control interventions. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : malaria; contrôle de maladies; enquête pathologique; vecteur de maladie; adaptation; facteur du milieu; facteur climatique; espèce; distribution spatiale; distribution géographique; anopheles arabiensis; anopheles gambiae; bénin

Thématique : Organismes nuisibles des animaux; Maladies des animaux

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