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Peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?

Albina E., Kwiatek O., Minet C., Lancelot R., Servan de Almeida R., Libeau G.. 2013. Veterinary Microbiology, 165 (1-2) : p. 38-44. International Congress of Veterinary Virology. 9, 2012-09-04/2012-09-07, Madrid (Espagne).

DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.12.013

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. Morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. Cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. Other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. PPR has recently spread in southern and northern Africa, and in central and far-east Asia. More than one billion sheep and goats worldwide are at risk. PPR is also present in Europe through western Turkey. Because of its clinical incidence and the restrictions on animal movements, PPR is a disease of major economic importance. A live attenuated vaccine was developed in the 1980s, and has been widely used in sheep and goats. Current researches aim (i) to make it more thermotolerant for use in countries with limited cold chain, and (ii) to add a DIVA mark to shorten and reduce the cost of final eradication. Rinderpest virus-another Morbillivirus-was the first animal virus to be eradicated from Earth. PPRV has been proposed as the next candidate. Considering its wide distribution and its multiple target host species which have an intense mobility, it will be a long process that cannot exclusively rely on mass vaccination. PPR specific epidemiological features and socio-economic considerations will also have to be taken into account, and sustained international, coordinated, and funded strategy based on a regional approach of PPR control will be the guarantee toward success.

Mots-clés : peste des petits ruminants; virus peste petits ruminants; ruminant; morbillivirus; vaccination; Épidémiologie; contrôle de maladies; petits ruminants

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