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Combining conservative and variable markers to infer the evolutionary history of Prunus subgen. Amygdalus s.l. under domestication

Delplancke M., Yazbek M., Arrigo N., Espindola A., Joly H., Alvarez N.. 2016. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 63 (2) : p. 221-234.

DOI: 10.1007/s10722-015-0242-6

The genus Prunus L. is large and economically important. However, phylogenetic relationships within Prunus at low taxonomic level, particularly in the subgenus Amygdalus L. s.l., remain poorly investigated. This paper attempts to document the evolutionary history of Amygdalus s.l. and establishes a temporal framework, by assembling molecular data from conservative and variable molecular markers. The nuclear s6pdh gene in combination with the plastid trnSG spacer are analyzed with bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. Since previous phylogenetic analysis with these markers lacked resolution, we additionally analyzed 13 nuclear SSR loci with the dµ2 distance, followed by an unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages algorithm. Our phylogenetic analysis with both sequence and SSR loci confirms the split between sections Amygdalus and Persica, comprising almonds and peaches, respectively. This result is in agreement with biogeographic data showing that each of the two sections is naturally distributed on each side of the Central Asian Massif chain. Using coalescent based estimations, divergence times between the two sections strongly varied when considering sequence data only or combined with SSR. The sequence-only based estimate (5 million years ago) was congruent with the Central Asian Massif orogeny and subsequent climate change. Given the low level of differentiation within the two sections using both marker types, the utility of combining microsatellites and data sequences to address phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic level within Amygdalus is discussed. The recent evolutionary histories of almond and peach are discussed in view of the domestication processes that arose in these two phenotypically-diverging gene pools: almonds and peaches were domesticated from the Amygdalus s.s. and Persica sections, respectively. Such economically important crops may serve as good model to study divergent domestication process in close genetic pool.

Mots-clés : prunus; prunus dulcis; domestication des plantes; phylogénie; Évolution; marqueur génétique; plasmide; séquence nucléotidique; locus des caractères quantitatifs; biogéographie; taxonomie; prunus persica; prunus americana; asie centrale; asie du sud-ouest; ssr; séquencage

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