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Identification by the DArTseq method of the genetic origin of the Coffea canephora cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico

Garavito A., Montagnon C., Guyot R., Bertrand B.. 2016. BMC Plant Biology, 16 (242) : 12 p..

Background: The coffee species Coffea canephora is commercially identified as "Conilon" when produced in Brazil, or "Robusta" when produced elsewhere in the world. It represents approximately 40 % of coffee production worldwide. While the genetic diversity of wild C. canephora has been well studied in the past, only few studies have addressed the genetic diversity of currently cultivated varieties around the globe. Vietnam is the largest Robusta producer in the world, while Mexico is the only Latin American country, besides Brazil, that has a significant Robusta production. Knowledge of the genetic origin of Robusta cultivated varieties in countries as important as Vietnam and Mexico is therefore of high interest. Results: Through the use of Sequencing-based diversity array technology-DArTseq method-on a collection of C. canephora composed of known accessions and accessions cultivated in Vietnam and Mexico, 4,021 polymorphic SNPs were identified. We used a multivariate analysis using SNP data from reference accessions in order to confirm and further fine-tune the genetic diversity of C. canephora. Also, by interpolating the data obtained for the varieties from Vietnam and Mexico, we determined that they are closely related to each other, and identified that their genetic origin is the Robusta Congo ¿ Uganda group. Conclusions: The genetic characterization based on SNP markers of the varieties grown throughout the world, increased our knowledge on the genetic diversity of C. canephora, and contributed to the understanding of the genetic background of varieties from very important coffee producers. Given the common genetic origin of the Robusta varieties cultivated in Vietnam, Mexico and Uganda, and the similar characteristics of climatic areas and relatively high altitude where they are grown, we can state that the Vietnamese and the Mexican Robusta have the same genetic potential to produce good cup quality. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : germplasm; marqueur génétique; génétique des populations; provenance; variation génétique; coffea canephora; mexique; viet nam; séquencage; ssr

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Taxonomie végétale et phyto-géographie; Méthodes de relevé

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