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Fate and impacts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products after repeated applications of organic waste products in long-term field experiments

Bourdat-Deschamps M., Ferhi S., Bernet N., Feder F., Crouzet O., Patureau D., Montenach D., Moussard G.D., Mercier V., Benoit P., Houot S.. 2017. Science of the Total Environment, 607-608 : p. 271-280.

Recycling organic waste products in agriculture is a potential route for the dispersion of pharmaceutical residues in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of thirteen pharmaceuticals and the personal care product triclosan (PPCPs) were determined in different environmental matrices from long-term experimental fields amended with different organic waste products (OWPs), including sludge, composted sludge with green wastes, livestock effluents and composted urban wastes applied at usual agricultural rates. PPCP concentrations were different in OWPs, varying from a few micrograms to milligrams per kilogram dry matter or per litre for slurry. OWPs from sludge or livestock effluents primarily contained antibiotics, whereas composted urban wastes primarily contained anti-inflammatory compounds. PPCP contents in soils amended for several years were less than a few micrograms per kilogram. The most persistent compounds (fluoroquinolones, carbamazepine) were quantified or detected in soils amended with sludge or composted sludge. In soils amended with composted municipal solid waste, carbamazepine was quantified, and fluoroquinolones, ibuprofen and diclofenac were sometimes detected. The small increases in fluoroquinolones and carbamazepine in soils after individual OWP applications were consistent with the fluxes from the applied OWP. The measured concentrations of pharmaceuticals in soil after several successive OWP applications were lower than the predicted concentrations because of degradation, strong sorption to soil constituents and/or leaching. Dissipation half-lives (DT50) were approximately 750¿2500, 900 and < 300 days for fluoroquinolones, carbamazepine and ibuprofen, respectively, in temperate soils and < 350 and < 80 days for fluoroquinolones and doxycycline, respectively, in tropical soils. Detection frequencies in soil leachates were very low (below 7%), and concentrations ranged from the limits of detection (0.002¿0.03 ?g/L) and exceptionally to 0.27 ?g/L. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were carbamazepine and ibuprofen. Based on the risk quotient, the estimated ecotoxicological risks for different soil organisms were low. (Résumé d'auteur)

Thématique : Traitement des déchets agricoles; Pollution; Autres thèmes

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