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In vitro cryopreservation of date palm caulogenic meristems

Fki L., Chkir O., Kriaa W., Nasri A., Baklouti E., Masmoudi R., Rival A., Drira N., Panis B.. 2017. In : Al-Khayri Jameel M.(ed.), Jain S. Mohan (ed.), Johnson Dennis V. (ed.). Date palm biotechnology protocols. Volume 2: Germplasm conservation and molecular breeding. New York : Humana Press, p. 39-48. (Methods in Molecular Biology, 1638).

Cryopreservation is the technology of choice not only for plant genetic resource preservation but also for virus eradication and for the efficient management of large-scale micropropagation. In this chapter, we describe three cryopreservation protocols (standard vitrification, droplet vitrification, and encapsulation vitrification) for date palm highly proliferating meristems that are initiated from vitro-cultures using plant growth regulator-free MS medium. The positive impact of sucrose preculture and cold hardening treatments on survival rates is significant. Regeneration rates obtained with standard vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification, and droplet-vitrification protocols can reach 30, 40, and 70%, respectively. All regenerated plants from non-cryopreserved or cryopreserved explants don't show morphological variation by maintaining genetic integrity without adverse effect of cryogenic treatment. Cryopreservation of date palm vitro-cultures enables commercial tissue culture laboratories to move to large-scale propagation from cryopreserved cell lines producing true-to-type plants after clonal field-testing trials. When comparing the cost of cryostorage and in-field conservation of date palm cultivars, tissue cryopreservation is the most cost-effective. Moreover, many of the risks linked to field conservation like erosion due to climatic, edaphic, and phytopathologic constraints are circumvented. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : culture in vitro; culture de méristème; vitrification; encapsulation; méristème; cryoconservation; phoenix dactylifera

Thématique : Multiplication végétative des plantes; Physiologie et biochimie végétales; Maladies des plantes

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