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A genomic approach to develop a new qPCR test enabling detection of the Pyricularia oryzae lineage causing wheat blast

Thierry M., Gladieux P., Fournier E., Tharreau D., Ioos R.. 2020. Plant Disease, 104 (1) : p. 60-70.

DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-04-19-0685-RE

Rapid detection is key to managing emerging diseases because it allows their spread around the world to be monitored and limited. The first major wheat blast epidemics were reported in 1985 in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Following this outbreak, the disease quickly spread to neighboring regions and countries and, in 2016, the first report of wheat blast disease outside South America was released. This Asian outbreak was due to the trade of infected South American seed, demonstrating the importance of detection tests in order to avoid importing contaminated biological material into regions free from the pathogen. Genomic analysis has revealed that one particular lineage within the fungal species Pyricularia oryzae is associated with this disease: the Triticum lineage. A comparison of 81 Pyricularia genomes highlighted polymorphisms specific to the Triticum lineage, and this study developed a real-time PCR test targeting one of these polymorphisms. The test's performance was then evaluated in order to measure its analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and robustness. The C17 quantitative PCR test detected isolates belonging to the Triticum lineage with high sensitivity, down to 13 plasmid copies or 1 pg of genomic DNA per reaction tube. The blast-based approach developed here to study P. oryzae can be transposed to other emerging diseases.

Mots-clés : pyricularia oryzae; triticum; maladie des plantes; génomique; pcr; plante céréalière; agent pathogène; brésil; bolivie (État plurinational de); asie

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