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Screening diversity and distribution of Copia retrotransposons reveals a specific amplification of BARE1 elements in genomes of the polyploid Hordeum murinum complex

Ourari M., Coriton O., Martin G., Huteau V., Keller J., Ainouche M.L., Amirouche R., Ainouche A.. 2020. Genetica, 148 (2) : p. 109-123.

We explored diversity, distribution and evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-Copia retrotransposons in the genomes of the Hordeum murinum polyploid complex and related taxa. Phylogenetic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of reverse transcriptase sequences identified four Copia families in these genomes: the predominant BARE1 (including three groups or subfamilies, A, B and C), and the less represented RIRE1, IKYA and TAR-1. Within the BARE1 family, BARE1-A elements and a subgroup of BARE1-B elements (named B1) have proliferated in the allopolyploid members of the H. murinum complex (H. murinum and H. leporinum), and in their extant diploid progenitor, subsp. glaucum. Moreover, we found a specific amplification of BARE1-B elements within each Hordeum species surveyed. The low occurrence of RIRE1, IKYA and TAR-1 elements in the allopolyploid cytotypes suggests that they are either weakly represented or highly degenerated in their diploid progenitors. The results demonstrate that BARE1-A and BARE1-B1 Copia elements are particularly well represented in the genomes of the H. murinum complex and constitute its genomic hallmark. No BARE1-A and -B1 homologs were detected in the reference barley genome. The similar distribution of RT-Copia probes across chromosomes of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid taxa of the murinum complex shows no evidence of proliferation following polyploidization.

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes

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