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First serological evidence of BHV-1 virus in Algerian dromedary camels: Seroprevalence and associated risk factors

Benaissa M.H., Youngs C.R., Mimoune N., Faye B., Mimouni F.Z., Kaidi R.. 2021. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 76 : 6 p..

DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2021.101638

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), caused by bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), is a major livestock health concern in many countries of the world. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were (i) to estimate the seroprevalence of BHV-1 infection and (ii) to assess risk factors associated with this disease in dromedary camels in four districts of Algeria. Blood samples were taken from 865 camels from 84 randomly selected herds, and serum was analyzed for presence of antibodies against BHV-1 by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Logistic regression was used to determine associations between seroprevalence and potential risk factors (collected using a questionnaire). Antibodies against BHV-1 were detected in 3.7 % (32/865) of samples. Eighteen of 84 camel herds had at least one BHV-1 seropositive camel, giving a herd seroprevalence of 21.4 %. Based on univariate analysis, the introduction of purchased animals and contact with others animal herds appeared as major risk factors. By using multivariate analysis, the only important risk factor was introduction of new animals. This study provided, for the first time, evidence of BHV-1 infection in dromedary camels in Algeria; it also provided estimates of seroprevalence of this disease and suggests that camels may serve as a reservoir of BHV-1 for spread to other species.

Mots-clés : herpesvirus bovin; rhinotrachéite; chameau; sérologie; facteur de risque; épidémie; enquête pathologique; surveillance épidémiologique; santé animale; virus des animaux; algérie; séroprévalence; rhinotrachéite infectieuse bovine

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