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Socio-economic strategies and results of vegetable traders in Phnom Penh (Cambodia)

Chan Sipana, Moustier P.. 2004. Montpellier : CIRAD, 45 p..

The study is part of Component 2 of Susper project on market development, which aims at a better correlation between vegetable supply by local production and the market demand. The main objective of the survey is a better understanding of the strategies of the market agents in terms of sources of supply, relations with suppliers and customers, nature of transport, access to information; and an evaluation of their costs and incomes. A total of 51 traders have been interviewed in three urban markets: Chbar Ampou and Dumkor (which act as wholesale and retail markets) and Oresey (a retail market) in May-June and September 2002. In these markets, the present stakeholders are: retailers (permanent, semi-permanent- who sell half the day and temporary); permanent and temporary wholesalers; collectors; and producers - some selling wholesale, some selling retail. The majority of traders (more than 80%) sell all year-round. The most popular means of transport are motorbikes (45%) and handcarts (14%) which are rented rather than owned. The average quantities traded per day in May-June 2002 are 550 kilos for wholesalers, 64 kilos for retailers, and 400 kilos for collectors. At the two times of the study, tomato, cabbage and Chinese cabbage originated from Vietnam (with some local origin for tomato in September - 14%) while cucumber, yard long bean, lettuce, choysum and water convolvulus originated from Cambodia (mostly Kandal Province). Around half the interviewed traders have developed regular relationships with their suppliers (this applies for imported as well as local products), which means that they are given priority in terms of supply and purchase, at all times of the year. This diminishes the risks of unsold products for suppliers and of lack of supply for purchasers. Around 70% of the traders listen to the radio and get access to price information through this means but 70% of those state it is not useful for lack of accuracy and timeliness. Incomes and marketing margins are highly variable among traders. On average, net marketing margins do not exceed 25% of purchase value for all categories of traders. The analysis suggests a positive relation between the amount of income, the quantity traded, and the access to regular suppliers. The answers on the comparison between local and imported products suggest: differences in aspect (bigger size for imported products); longer availability of imported products; but higher appreciation of taste and alleged safety of local products. Bad marketing conditions and lack of product availability are difficulties stated by the traders. From the traders¿ declarations, the conditions of vegetable distribution could be improved by upgrading marketplaces and making local supply more regular throughout the year.

Mots-clés : Étude de marché; légume; analyse de système; information sur le marché; enquête; analyse des coûts; zone urbaine; zone rurale; importation; concurrence économique; cambodge

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