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Occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in traditional millet-based fermented gruels for young children in West Africa: Ben-Saalga and Ben-Kida in Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso)

Akaki K.D., Loiseau G., Vernière-Icar C., Guyot J.P.. 2011. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3 (6) : p. 446-454.

A study was conducted to evaluate microbiological quality of traditionally millet-based fermented gruels consumed as weaning foods at different stages of the processes as prepared at household level in Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso in 2004, February to May. Our methodology is based on the use of traditional enumeration of four categories of micro-organisms like the enterobacteria that cause fecal contaminations, staphylococcal for the hygiene of producers, Bacillus as cereals contaminant and diarrhea and vomiting agents for young children; Clostridium like telluric agents. These enumerations were coupled with the identification of the characteristic colonies. Fermentation followed by sufficient cooking remains a good means of reduction of the microbial population, especially non-sporulated micro-organisms. MC agar count at 35ºC went from 4.0×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation) to 1.9×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation) to reach zero values. On BP agar at 35ºC, the count was 5.1×105 cfu/mL (before fermentation), 2.3×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation) and 7.2×104 cfu/mL (after cooking). On MYP agar at 35ºC, the results are as follows: 9.9×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation), 1.0×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation) and 1.6×103 cfu/mL (after cooking). Finally, we obtained on TSC agar at 46ºC about 4.1×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation), 2.7×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation) and 8.0×103 cfu/mL (after cooking). Identifications showed a strong presence of sporulated germs and non-sporulated acid tolerant germs especially after cooking. These results show how difficult these types of germs are to eliminate.

Mots-clés : bactérie pathogène; aliment fermenté; technologie traditionnelle; microbiologie; qualité des aliments; bacillus; enterobacteriaceae; staphylococcus; clostridium; contamination biologique; bouillie; fermentation; cuisson; hygiène des aliments; flore microbienne; aliment pour nourrisson; produit céréalier; pennisetum glaucum; burkina faso

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