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Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops

Bechoff A., Dhuique-Mayer C.. 2017. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1390 : p. 74-87.

Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors in?uencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in bioforti?ed crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, bioforti?ed crops have been shown to be overall ef?cacious in reducing micronutrient de?ciency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-?-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as in?ammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future ef?cacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variation Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors in?uencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in bioforti?ed crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, bioforti?ed crops have been shown to be overall ef?cacious in reducing micronutrient de?ciency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-?-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as in?ammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future ef?cacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variation. (Résumé d'auteur)

Thématique : Traitement et conservation des produits alimentaires; Composition des produits alimentaires; Physiologie de la nutrition humaine

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