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D Initial report on sensory and African consumer acceptance for Group 1. Project AFTER ¿African Food Tradition rEvisited by Research¿

Adinsi L., Ahmed Z.S., Akissoé N.H., Amengor M., Amoa-Awua W., Anihouvi V., Annan T., Anyebuno G., Bechoff A., Bennett B., Dalodé-Vieira G., Declemy A.L., Diako C., Dzomeku M., Fliedel G., Hassan-Wassef H., Hounhouigan J.D., Obodai M., Oduro-Yeboah C., Ofori H., Owusu M., Pallet D., Sacca C., Aati Shahat A., Keith I., Tomlins K.I., Tortoe C.. 2012. s.l. : Projet AFTER; Union Européenne, 73 p..

The sensory profiles and acceptability of Akpan, Gowe, Akpan and Kishk Sa'eedi were tested using a focus group discussion, a quantitative descriptive panel and consumer panels comprising African and/or European consumers as indicated in the table below. It should be noted that consumer testing of Kishk Sa'eedi was delayed because of the current social unrest in Egypt. The number of consumers interviewed by product and country is summarised in the table below. Consumer Class (and number): Country Benin Product Akpan African: 103Non-African74 Country Ghana Product Kenkey African: 110 Non-African90 Country Benin Product Gowe African: 141Non-African- Country Egypt Product Kishk Sa' eedi : African- Non-African- Sensory testing indicated that for each product, the sensory profiles widely differed. This was influenced by the raw material (Kenkey, Gowe, Akpan, KS), process (Kenkey, Akpan and KS) and addition of sugar/milk (Akpan and Gowe). The products also differed according to acceptance. Akpan - African and non-African consumers behaved differently with respect to acceptability. Europeans generally had a lower acceptability of Akpan products compared to Africans. This was probably due to the fact that most Europeans were not familiar with the product since when Europeans did report consuming Akpan, there were no differences in acceptability. Consumers' acceptance was significantly associated with fermented odour and milky taste. African consumers were more sensitive to the thick/concentrated texture and cereal taste whilst Europeans were more positively influenced by sweet taste but negatively by acidic taste. Kenkey ¿ African and non-African consumers differed in acceptance of Kenkey. Non- African consumers mostly preferred the white kenkey and to a lesser extent banku. Ghanaian consumers generally liked all of the samples or preferred banku. Sensory attributes important for the white likers were whitish colour, fruity odour, smooth and non-sticky texture, a less sour product without a pronounced fermented odour, and a bland taste. Salty taste correlated significantly with acceptance for the banku likers, Gowe - The commonly consumed gowe were sensorially distinct products with differences between the sorghum and maize samples of gowe, but no significant difference was noted with sugar was added. Regarding consumer testing, three distinct patterns of consumer acceptability were observed, which were grouped as 'Sugary Gowe likers' or ¿Natural sorghum Gowe dislikers¿ (63.1%) followed by 'Sugary sorghum Gowe likers' (20.6%) and 'Indifferent Gowe likers' (16.3%). Saccharified malted and no-malted sorghum Gowe without sugar were the least preferred. Kishk Sa'eedi (KS) has distinct sensory attributes and variation. Consumer acceptance has still to be completed. The conclusions for reengineering are as follows: Akpan ¿ there are two options being products suited to a) Akpan from Maize Ogi containing Sugar and Milk (OMsm) or b) Akpan from Ogi Sorghum containing Sugar and Milk (OSsm). However, since they are representative of classes of akpan type, any of these two classes could be suited for the reengineering. That is the case of OMs or OSs membership of OMsm and OSsm respectively. Kenkey - Two products should be considered, one adapted to both the European and the Ghanaian consumer 'white likers' and the second adapted to only the Ghanaian consumer 'all likers and 'banku likers'. Important sensory attributes which should guide re-engineering of the first product are whitish colour, fruity odour, smooth and nonsticky texture, a mildly sour product, and a bland taste. This may be achieved by a combination of processing factors including dehulling of maize kernels, use of mixed lactic acid bacteria/yeast starter culture containing high concentration of yeasts cells (for fruity odour), reduced fermentation period (to reduce sourness and fermented odour) and elimination of the aflata step (to reduce sticky texture). The second product shou...

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