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Lipases as effective green biocatalysts for phytosterol esters production: A review

Pereira A.D.S., De Souza A.H., Fraga J.L., Villeneuve P., Torres A.G., Amaral P.. 2022. Catalysts, 12 (1) : 28 p..

DOI: 10.3390/catal12010088

Lipases are versatile enzymes widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. They are green biocatalysts with a high potential for industrial use compared to traditional chemical methods. In recent years, lipases have been used to synthesize a wide variety of molecules of industrial interest, and extraordinary results have been reported. In this sense, this review describes the important role of lipases in the synthesis of phytosterol esters, which have attracted the scientific community's attention due to their beneficial effects on health. A systematic search for articles and patents published in the last 20 years with the terms ¿phytosterol AND esters AND lipase¿ was carried out using the Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases, and the results showed that Candida rugosa lipases are the most relevant biocatalysts for the production of phytosterol esters, being used in more than 50% of the studies. The optimal temperature and time for the enzymatic synthesis of phytosterol esters mainly ranged from 30 to 101 °C and from 1 to 72 h. The esterification yield was greater than 90% for most analyzed studies. Therefore, this manuscript presents the new technological approaches and the gaps that need to be filled by future studies so that the enzymatic synthesis of phytosterol esters is widely developed.

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