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Athermal concentration by osmotic evaporation of roselle extract, apple and grape juices and impact on quality

Cisse M., Vaillant F., Bouquet S., Pallet D., Lutin F., Reynes M., Dornier M.. 2011. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 12 (3) : p. 352-360.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ifset.2011.02.009

Osmotic evaporation (or osmotic distillation) was carried out on roselle extract, apple and grape juices. The industrial pilot plant used had a hydrophobic, polypropylene, hollow-fiber membrane with an area of 10.2 m2 and an average pore diameter of 0.2 ?m. It was suitable for concentrating vegetable extracts and fruit juices, and controlled various parameters such as temperature, flow velocity, and brine concentration. The final total soluble solids (TSS) contents achieved were 660, 570, and 610 g kg?1 for grape juice, apple juice, and roselle extract, respectively. Temperature and concentration of solutions significantly influenced evaporation flux, which, for roselle extract, was 1.5 kg h?1 m?2 at 610 g TSS kg?1 and 45 °C. The physico-chemical, biochemical, and aromatic qualities of concentrates obtained by osmotic evaporation were much higher than those of thermal concentrates, and close to those of the initial products. Industrial relevance: Membrane processes are increasingly used to concentrate thermo-sensitive fruit juices and plant extracts. Their capacity to operate at moderate temperatures and pressures means that their energy consumption is low, while they produce good quality concentrates. Nonetheless, the main disadvantage of baromembrane processes is their inability to reach the concentration levels standard for products of thermal evaporation because of limitations resulting from high osmotic pressure. Actually, reverse osmosis membranes and equipment limit the final concentration of fruit juices to about 25-35°Brix. Osmotic evaporation has attracted considerable interest, as it can concentrate juices to as much as 65°Brix. This process, when applied to various juices, better preserves the quality of raw materials. However, because of the geometrical limitations of commercially available membranes and modules, juices must first be clarified. To our knowledge, only a few studies on osmotic evaporation have so far been conducted at a semi-industrial scale and never with roselle extracts.

Mots-clés : jus de fruits; jus de pomme; jus de raisin; hibiscus sabdariffa; roselle; concentration; séchage osmotique; Évaporation (en industrie); membrane; qualité; sénégal

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