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Characterisation of the volatile profile of coconut water from five varieties using an optimised HS-SPME-GC analysis

Prades A., Ablan Assa R.R., Dornier M., Pain J.P., Boulanger R.. 2012. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92 (12) : p. 2471-2478.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5655

BACKGROUND: Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water is a refreshing tropical drink whose international market has recently been growing. However, little is yet known about its physicochemical composition, particularly its aroma. This study set out to characterise the volatile profile of water from five coconut varieties. RESULTS: Aroma compounds were characterised by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) analysis. An experimental design was established to optimise SPME conditions, leading to an equilibration time of 10 min followed by an extraction time of 60 min at 50 °C. Accordingly, immature coconut water from WAT (West African Tall), PB121 (MYD × WAT Hybrid), MYD (Malayan Yellow Dwarf), EGD (Equatorial Guinea Green Dwarf) and THD (Thailand Aromatic Green Dwarf) palms was analysed and described. Ketones were mainly present in the Tall and Hybrid varieties, whereas aldehydes were most abundant in the Dwarf palms. Tall coconut water was characterised by a high lactone content. THD exhibited a high ethyl octanoate level. The cluster analysis of the volatile fraction from the five coconut cultivars was found to be related to their genetic classification. CONCLUSION: The volatile compounds of immature coconut water from five varieties were characterised for the first time. Volatile profile analysis could be a useful tool for the selection of Dwarf coconut varieties, which are mainly consumed as a beverage.

Mots-clés : eau de coco; cocos nucifera; composé aromatique; qualité; chromatographie en phase gazeuse; composition chimique; stade de développement végétal; maturité; variété; nain; génotype; thaïlande; côte d'ivoire; afrique occidentale; guinée Équatoriale; malaisie

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