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Multi-mycotoxin determination in rice, maize and peanut products most consumed in Côte d'Ivoire by UHPLC-MS/MS

Manizan A.L., Oplatowska-Stachowiak M., Piro-Metayer I., Campbell K., Koffi-Nevry R., Elliott C.T., Akaki D., Montet D., Brabet C.. 2018. Food Control, 87 : p. 22-30.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.11.032

The aim of this study was to determine the multi-mycotoxin occurrence in cereal and oilseed products most consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 238 samples of rice (88 produced locally or imported), maize (79, cracked or flour) and peanut paste (71) were collected in the main markets of Abidjan, Bouaké and Korhogo. An UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the analysis of 77 mycotoxins. All the peanut paste samples were contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) with 99% exceeding the EU limits of 2 µg kg-1 for AFB1 and 4 µg kg-1 for total aflatoxins (AFT: B1+B2+G1+G2), and concentrations reaching up to 4535 µg kg-1 (AFB1) and 8094 µg kg-1 (AFT). Maize (96%) and rice (57%) samples were also contaminated by AFB1 with 58% and 24% respectively above the EU limits and maximum levels of 80 µg kg-1 for maize and 14 µg kg-1 for rice. Only 6% of the cereal samples (3 rice and one maize samples) had ochratoxin A content above the EU limit (3 µg kg-1). Fumonisins and zearalenone were detected, respectively, in 91% and 8% of the maize samples, and in 18% and 5% of the rice samples but at levels below EU limits. Out of the 238 samples, 91% were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin including EU regulated mycotoxins and/or other mycotoxins mainly beauvericin (79% of the samples), equisetin (71%), aflatoxin M1 (45%), cyclopiazonic acid (32%), fumonisin B3 (29%), sterigmatocystin (24%), citrinin (18%), ochratoxin B (16%) and fusaric acid (15%). The peanut paste samples represented the highest risk to consumer health followed by maize and rice samples.

Mots-clés : mycotoxine; produit transformé; produit céréalier; produit oléagineux; riz; arachide; maïs; produit alimentaire; technique analytique; aflatoxine; ochratoxine; fumonisine; citrinine; stérigmatocystine; côte d'ivoire; beauvericine

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